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Certification in Data Protection: New and Old Issues Concerning Certifiers’ Liabilities journal article

Anna Rita Popoli

European Data Protection Law Review, Volume 6 (2020), Issue 3, Page 390 - 406

The article examines the various forms of liabilities that accredited certification bodies may incur in operating in the field of data protection, while also trying to offer some suggestions to improve the harmonisation in the pathological phase of litigation in certification mechanisms. Keywords: GDPR, Data Protection, Certification, Contractual Liability, Tort Liability, ADR/ODR

Data Protection or Data Frustration? Individual Perceptions and Attitudes Towards the GDPR journal article

Joanna Strycharz, Jef Ausloos, Natali Helberger

European Data Protection Law Review, Volume 6 (2020), Issue 3, Page 407 - 421

Strengthening individual rights, enhancing control over one’s data and raising awareness were among the main aims the European Commission set for the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). In order to assess whether these aims have been met, research into individual perceptions, awareness, and understanding of the Regulation is necessary. This study thus examines individual reactions to the GDPR in order to provide insights into user agency in relation to the Regulation. More specifically, it discusses empirical data (survey with N = 1288) on individual knowledge of, reactions to, and rights exercised under the GDPR in the Netherlands. The results show high awareness of the GDPR and knowledge of individual rights. At the same time, the Dutch show substantial reactance to the Regulation and doubt the effectiveness of their individual rights. These findings point to several issues obstructing the GDPR’s effectiveness, and constitute useful signposts for policy-makers and enforcement agencies to prioritise their strategies in achieving the original aims of the Regulation. Keywords: General Data Protection Regulation, Individual Perceptions, Reactance to Law, User Agency, User Empowerment

Data Protection Authorities and their Awareness-raising Duties under the GDPR: The Case for Engaging Umbrella Organisations to Disseminate Guidance for Small and Medium-size Enterprises journal article open-access

Leanne Cochrane, Lina Jasmontaite-Zaniewicz, David Barnard-Wills

European Data Protection Law Review, Volume 6 (2020), Issue 3, Page 352 - 364

In this paper we explore EU data protection authorities’ (DPAs) role as leaders and educators, particularly in relation to awareness-raising efforts with Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The GDPR made awareness raising duties of DPAs explicit whilst SMEs face challenges complying with data protection law. We posit that DPAS should make better strategic use of collaboration with SME Associations as intermediaries to better access and understand the needs of SMEs. This collaboration could facilitate dissemination of guidance and information addressed to SMEs. It could also help to overcome concerns expressed by SME representatives about the existing guidance provided by DPAs as being overly generic, focused on legal theory, and in some states arriving too late for implementation. We suggest that by working together SME Associations and DPAs could increase their own working efficiency as well as the one of SMEs. We build our arguments on the findings of an online survey of 52-60 SMEs representatives and semi-structured qualitative interviews with 18 DPAs, 22 SME Association representatives and 11 SME representatives. Keywords: Awareness Raising, Compliance, Data Protection Authorities, Deterrence, Enforcement Strategies, General Data Protection Regulation

Assessing the Legal and Ethical Impact of Data Reuse: journal article

Developing a Tool for Data Reuse Impact Assessments (DRIA)

Bart Custers, Helena U Vrabec, Michael Friedewald

European Data Protection Law Review, Volume 5 (2019), Issue 3, Page 317 - 337

In the data economy, many organisations, particularly SMEs may not be in a position to generate large amounts of data themselves, but may benefit from reusing data previously collected by others. Organisations that collect large amounts of data themselves may also benefit from reusing such data for other purposes than originally envisioned. However, under the current EU personal data protection legal framework, constituted by the General Data Protection Regulation, there are clear limits and restrictions to the reuse of personal data. Data can only be reused for purposes that are compatible with the original purposes for which the data were collected and processed. This is at odds with the reality of the data economy, in which there is a considerable need for data reuse. To address this issue, in this article we present the concept of a Data Reuse Impact Assessment (DRIA), which can be considered as an extension to existing Privacy and Data Protection Impact Assessments (PIAs and DPIAs). By adding new elements to these existing tools that specifically focus on the reuse of data and aspects regarding data ethics, a DRIA may typically be helpful to strike a better balance between the protection of personal data that is being reused and the need for data reuse in the data economy. Using a DRIA may contribute to increased trust among data subjects that their personal data is adequately protected. Data subjects, in turn, may then be willing to share more data, which on the long term may also be beneficial for the data economy. Keywords: Data Reuse, Data Protection, Privacy, Data Protection Impact Assessments, Privacy Impact Assessments

Regulating Big Data in and out of the Data Protection Policy Field: journal article

Two Scenarios of Post-GDPR Law-Making and the Actor Perspective

Paul de Hert, Juraj Sajfert

European Data Protection Law Review, Volume 5 (2019), Issue 3, Page 338 - 351

Why is Big Data absent in the recent basic data protection documents of the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe (CoE)? Why not one single reference to Big Data practices - be it to regulate or to prohibit it - in the recent General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the Data Protection Law Enforcement Directive (EU) 2016/680 and the Modernised CoE Convention 108 for the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data (Convention 108+)? Some actors in the policy field considered Big Data too dangerous and counted on existing data protection principles to tame the beast. Others simply ignored the phenomenon or were not aware of the potential benefits of Big Data for economy and governments (the rendez-vous was missed). Our discussion of no less than six recent initiatives, - standalone laws and soft law instruments - is an indication that Europe is embracing Big Data but is seemingly hesitant to confront Big Data within the classical paradigm (field) of data protection law. Concrete guidance for Big Data practices is now spread over multiple texts emanating outside the data protection field. Keywords: Big Data, Data Protection, European Commission, Institutional Actors There is no sense in studying ideas as if they floated in a kind of intellectual heaven, with no reference to the agents who produce them or, above all, to the conditions in which these agents produce them, that is, in particular to the relations of competition in which they stand towards one another.

The Protection of Data Concerning Health in Europe journal article

Trix Mulder

European Data Protection Law Review, Volume 5 (2019), Issue 2, Page 209 - 220

More and more, medical practitioners use modern technologies such as apps and wearables in their treatment plan. The GDPR defines these kinds of data as ‘data concerning health’. However, also the term ‘medical data’ is being used. Furthermore, the Council of Europe uses terms such as ‘personal health data’ and ‘medical welfare data’. Using all these different terms makes it difficult to understand what is protected by these terms and what is not. This article gives an historical overview of the evolution of the protection of data concerning health, which also leads to a discussion on the current broad definition and offers possible solutions for the use of (the term) ‘data concerning health’. Keywords: Data Concerning Health, GDPR, Data Protection, Council of Europe

Legal Issues in Regulating Observational Studies: journal article

The impact of the GDPR on Italian Biomedical Research

Paola Aurucci

European Data Protection Law Review, Volume 5 (2019), Issue 2, Page 197 - 208

This article aims to show the legal challenges rising from the use, reuse, linkage and analysis of sensitive data in observational studies. In order to spell out these challenges and a possible way of meeting them, the first section takes into account the distinctive nature of retrospective observational studies and Big Data anal. The second section shows how the General Data Protection Regulation faces the challenge of maximising the opportunities arising from these studies while protecting the privacy of individual patients through research exemptions. The last section focuses on the Italian data protection regime to show why delegation of powers back to the national legal systems of the Member States entails a number of critical drawbacks, like hampering the progress of medical research. Keywords: GDPR, Data Protection, Medical Research, Sensitive Data

Peter Nowak v Data Protection Commissioner: journal article

Potential Aftermaths Regarding Subjective Annotations in Clinical Records

Daniel Jove

European Data Protection Law Review, Volume 5 (2019), Issue 2, Page 175 - 183

On 20 December 2017 the European Court of Justice gave its judgment on the Nowak case. This ruling addresses the potential application of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to the answers and subjective comments of the examiner. The classification of this data as personal data entails, for the candidate, the possibility of using their rights of access, rectification and objection. This study analyses the Nowak ruling and reflects on the possibility of extrapolating the doctrine which it establishes to other areas. The spotlight is placed specifically on subjective comments in a medical history. The nature of this information is analysed in order to establish whether it is the patient’s personal data and also if limiting the right to access this information is compatible with the GDPR. Keywords: Data Protection, Subjective Annotations, Clinical Record, GDPR, General Data Protection Regulation, European Court of Justice