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Data Governance Redefined:

The Evolution of EU Data Regulations from the GDPR to the DMA, DSA, DGA, Data Act and AI Act

Maitrayee Pathak


Keywords: data governance, EU Data Strategy, data privacy, smart contracts, artificial intelligence, AI

This article explores the evolution of EU Data Regulations from the GDPR, through the DMA, DSA, DGA, Data Act and the upcoming AI Act. It addresses a research gap of a comprehensive evolutionary view of a significant regulatory expansion in the scope of data, the diversification of regulated entities, and the increasing complexity of data management activities. Through a comparative legal analysis, it highlights how the regulations responded to digital challenges, from the often obscure and anticompetitive data management practices of big tech companies to the emergence of new technologies such as IoT, smart contracts and generative AI, and created the expansion of regulatory reach to new entities, including gatekeepers, online intermediaries, data intermediaries, data altruism organisations, manufacturers of connected products, AI system developers and many more, and a broadening scope of data from personal to non-personal and business data. Our analysis critically assesses the alignment of this evolution with the European Data Strategy of creating a single market for data through fostering innovation and competition, and shaping a society empowered by data by safeguarding fundamental rights through ensuring data access, accountability and transparency. This article contributes to understanding the EU's evolving approach to data governance, fundamental rights and innovation.
Keywords: data governance; EU Data Strategy; data privacy; smart contracts; artificial intelligence; AI

Maitrayee Pathak is a legal and technology researcher with an LLB and LLM from India, and a PhD from University of Szeged (SZTE), Hungary. She is practicing as Legal Counsel in FintechX Technologies Zrt. in Budapest, focusing on blockchain, AI, international data privacy, GDPR and data governance regulations. For correspondence: <>.


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