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Estonia, the Digital Nation: Reflections on a Digital Citizen’s Rights in the European Union

Paloma Krõõt Tupay


Keywords: Estonia, digital governance, once only principle, GDPR, data protection, information society

Dr iur Paloma Krõõt Tupay, Lecturer in Constitutional Law, School of Law, Department of Public Law, Tartu University, former legal adviser to the President of Estonia. For correspondence: <>. The author thanks Monika Mikiver and Maris Juha for their valuable advice and helpful suggestions. The responsibility for the correctness of any information, statement and opinion stated in the article resides solely with the autor. All Internet links in this contribution were last accessed 1 May 2020.An extensive version of this report, giving a full overview of developments in Estonia towards becoming an e-state as well as numerous additional examples of data processing related provisions can be found online at <>. The extensive version will be referred to hereinafter as ‘Report Full Version’.


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